Events at Department of Energy Technology

Industrial/PhD Course: Grid-Forming Inverters: Principles and Practices


13.12.2021 kl. 08.30 - 15.12.2021 kl. 16.30



Professor Xiongfei Wang, Aalborg University, Denmark


Prof. Pedro Rodriguez, University of Loyola, Spain 
Prof. Xiongfei Wang, Aalborg University 

ECTS:  3  


Inverter-based generation and transmission systems are vastly used in modern power grids, driven by the sharp cost reduction of renewable energy resources and the advances of power electronics technology. To secure a stable inverter-based power system, the grid-forming control is increasingly used with grid-connected inverters, who operate as voltage sources to regulate the grid voltage and frequency. There is thus an important need to address this timely and important topic among both power electronics and power system engineers and researchers. This course intends to provide a systematic discussion on the principles and design practices of grid-forming inverters.  

The main topics include, but not limited to: 

  • Grid-synchronization of inverters  
  • From synchronous generators to grid-forming inverters 
  • Overview of virtual synchronous generators  
  • Synchronous power control – damping, inertia and virtual impedance  
  • Small-signal modeling and stability analysis 
  • Design-oriented transient stability analysis 
  • Active damping of power oscillations 

Day 1: From Synchronous Generators to Grid-Forming Inverters (Prof. Pedro Rodriguez, 6 hours)  

  • Grid-synchronization of inverters 
  • Fundamental concepts of grid-forming inverters 
  • Overview of virtual synchronous generators 

Day 2: Synchronous Power Control (Prof. Pedro Rodriguez, 3 hours) and Voltage Control (Prof. Xiongfei Wang, 3 hours) 

  • Synchronous power control: principles and industry practices 
  • Damping, inertia and virtual impedances  
  • Design principles and practices of voltage control  
  • Small-signal modeling and passivity-based analysis 

Day 3: Small-Signal and Transient Stability Analysis (Prof. Xiongfei Wang, 6 hours) 

  • Small-signal modeling of power control  
  • Analysis and damping of synchronous resonance 
  • Analysis and damping of sub-synchronous resonance  
  • Large-signal modeling of power control  
  • Transient stability analysis 


Prior knowledge on the fundamentals of power systems and synchronous machines, power electronics, as well as feedback control theory are preferred.    

Form of evaluation: 

Exercises and report  


6000 DKK for PhD students outside of Denmark and 8000 DKK for the Industry.


Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University


Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstræde 101, room 1.015, 9220 Aalborg East

Registration Deadline

22.11.2021 kl. 00.00

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