Events at Department of Energy Technology

Industrial/PhD Course: Future Low Voltage Distribution Grids



06.12.2021 kl. 08.30 - 08.12.2021 kl. 16.30



Associate Professor Florin Iov,, Aalborg University, Denmark


Associated prof. Rasmus Olsen Løvenstein, Aalborg University 
Post Doc Karthikeyan Nainar,, Aalborg University 
Post Doc Catalin Iosif Ciontea,, Aalborg University 

ECTS:  3  


Low-voltage (LV) distribution grids are undergoing a major change with the additions of resources such as PVs, electric vehicles etc. At present, LV grids are not observable in near realtime due to which DSOs are unable to perform active grid management.  By implementing an advanced metering infrastructure and leveraging the ICT, DSOs can utilize the existing grid assets for monitoring, control and planning of LV grids. This three days course gives a systematic approach for modelling, design and operation of future LV grids using the model based design approach and the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM). The course includes a wide set of hands-on exercises and demonstrations in a Real-Time Hardware-In-the Loop framework. The main focus in this course will be on:  

  • DSO challenges on operation, control and planning  
  • SGAM framework  
  • Real-Time modelling of future low voltage distribution grids  
  • ICT and data collection mechanisms   
  • Data Security and Privacy Aspects  
  • Runtime Data Driven Control and Protection  
  • Asset management  
  • RT-HIL validation and testing of smart-grid solutions  

Lectures are alternated with practical exercises on each major topic. More than 40% of the course is used for practical exercises and laboratory demonstrations.   

Day 1:   

  • Future Low Voltage Grids – DSO and societal challenges – Florin Iov (2 hours)   
    • Current and future challenges  
    • Introduction to SGAM framework  
    • Smart grid enabling technologies (smart meters, smart inverters, smart EV chargers)  
    • Methodologies and tools for design and assessment (offline simulations  and RT-HIL)  
  • Real-Time Modelling of LV Distribution Grids – Florin Iov (2 hours)  
    • Challenges in LV grids (unbalances, grounding, faults, etc)  
    • Positive sequence vs 3-phase modelling  
    • Benchmarking of simulation tools  
    • Practical exercises  
  • Real-Time Modelling of Assets – Catalin Iosif Ciontea (2 hours)  
    • Modelling requirements for specific LV studies  
    • Assets modeling (wind turbines, PV, energy storage, smart meters, electric loads etc.)  
    • Statistical versus historic data (load, wind, solar)  
    • Practical exercises  

Day 2:  

  • Grid Observability for Real-Time Monitoring and Control – Karthikeyan Nainar (2 hours)  
    • Technologies and required functionalities (Smart Meters, RTUs, grid inverters, etc.)  
    • Measurements (filtering, RMS calculation)  
    • State estimation techniques (WLS, Kalman filter, etc.)  
    • Practical exercises  
  • Information and Communication Technologies – Rasmus Olsen (2.5 hours)  
    • Communication networks architectures and technologies  
    • Data collection mechanisms, protocols and standards  
    • Performance definitions and classification  
    • Models for ICT (offline simulations  and RT-HIL)  
    • Practical exercises  
  • Data Security and Privacy Aspects – Rasmus Olsen (1.5 hours)  
    • GDPR Challenges  
    • Data handling mechanisms  
    • Data protection measures  

Day 3:   

  • Runtime Data Driven Control and Protection – Karthikeyan Nainar and Catalin Iosif Ciontea (2 hours)  
    • Active and Reactive power management (voltage profiles, loss minimization, capability and utilization of existing infrastructure)  
    • Outage management and power supply restoration  
    • Practical exercises  
  • Asset Management – Florin Iov and Karthikeyan Nainar (2 hours)  
    • Key Performance Indicators using historical data (quality of service, reliability of power supply)  
    • Medium and long term planning (hosting capacity, expansion scenarios, impact assessment studies)  
    • Practical exercises  
  • RT-HIL demonstrations – Catalin Iosif Ciontea (2 hours)  
    • Architectures and practical considerations for RT-HIL deployment  
    • Laboratory demonstrations on a Danish case study using RT-HIL framework  


Basic knowledge on Matlab/Simulink including Toolboxes is recommended for the exercises.  

Form of evaluation:

Individual evaluation of the student assignments received during the lecture and laboratory exercises.  


6000 DKK for PhD students outside of Denmark and 8000 DKK for the Industry.


Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University

Registration Deadline

15.11.2021 kl. 00.00

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